Researchers find that a 45 minutes of moderate intensity training allows more exosomes to transport the protein, ATP7A directly to endothelial cell lines, which may help in facilitating angiogenesis.

Exercise can aid in repairing damages caused by diabetes, by allowing the activation of a system that creates new blood vessels whenever existing ones are damaged due to the disease, researchers from the Vascular Biology Center of the Medical College of Georgia said in an announcement.

Diabetes damages existing blood cells and blocks the growth of new ones especially endothelial cells which line blood vessels and aid in helping new blood cells to grow according to the researchers.

The researchers found that a 45 minutes of moderate intensity training can enable the production of more exosomes. These are small packages that are filled with bioactive cargo to transport this protein ATP7A and directly into these cells, which could assist in the process of enabling angiogenesis.

Exosomes are now a reliable delivery system, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic and the kind of disease they carry is dependent on the place they originate from and where they’re heading Tohru Fukai, MD PhD, FAHA, is a vascular biologist as well as cardiologist at MCG told in an official statement.

The origins of exosomes remain a mystery, however they are delivered to endothelial cells Fukai explained.

Both in an animal model model of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) as well as healthy people who are in their 50s and older, 2 weeks of riding a bicycle for mice, and a single training session for humans increased the amount of ATP7A in the exosomes connected to endothelial cells.

The study did not alter the weight of mice, however it did increase an indicator of the function of the endothelial and other factors, including the vascular endothelial cell growth factor, which is essential to promote angiogenesis, the researchers said.

Exercise also increases the quantity of the antioxidant that is naturally present in Superoxide dismutase (SOD3), which is an extracellular enzyme (SOD3) however it also is heavier in “payload” in ATP7A that is believed to supply the copper into cells researchers have said.

SOD3 is created by smooth muscle cells of vascular origin in blood vessel walls as well as the skeletal muscle cells. It assists keep healthy levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is a byproduct of the utilization of oxygen. It is an essential signal to cells , and is able to perform various functions.

In diabetes high blood sugar levels lead to elevated levels of ROS that hinder normal functioning.

Researchers have discovered that ATP7A levels also decrease in patients with diabetes, but the evidence suggests that exosomes circulating inside the plasmas of models for sedentary animals of T2D hinder angiogenesis in a dish that contains humans’ endothelial cell. The same is true for the model for wound healing.

Exosomes that are synthetically produced may be able to serve as “exercise mimetic” to increase the capacity of an individual to develop new blood vessels in cases where the disease has weakened their natural capacity.

Furthermore, the researchers have created exosomes in which SOD3 is expressed in excess and have observed an increase in angiogenesis as well as healing in the mouse model of diabetes.

Exosomes are being investigated as biomarkers that can be used to diagnose a wide spectrum of diseases including diabetes and cancer as well as for precise tools to deliver treatment. Exosomes, for instance, created by cancer cells can be honed back to cancer cells.


A new study has shown that exercise can help prevent damage from diabetes. EurekAlert. News release. 26 April 2022. Accessed April 26, 2022.