We all suffer from headaches. Yes, it’s uncomfortable, but you put on a painkiller and are back to normal within just a few hours.

Are you aware that you or your loved ones suffered from debilitating headaches that make it difficult to continue with daily routines? The thing you could have experienced or heard about could be “migraine” as well as “cluster headaches.”

Migraine isn’t only headache. It’s a neurological disorder and headache is the main sign.

As per the National Headache Foundation, 40 million Americans suffer from migraine. World Health Organization statistics state that one out of seven adults in the world suffers from migraines and it is believed that the condition occurs three times more frequent among women than males.

How can you tell when your headache is migraine?

You can utilize this ID Migraine Tool from the National Headache Foundation.

The answer of “yes” for two of three of these easy questions will identify migraine sufferers.

What exactly is migraine and what are the causes?

As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, migraine is a neurodegenerative disorder that is complex. It typically begins in puberty, and is most commonly seen in who are between 35 and 45.

It is more prevalent for women, typically in a ratio of around 2:1 due to hormonal factors.

It’s caused by activation of a process deep within the brain that triggers the release of pain-producing inflammation substances in the blood vessels of the brain.

The stages of migraine

Migraine is a complex condition that often is present in various stages. As per Mayo Clinic, migraine can develop into four phases that include prodrome, aura attack, and postdrome. It is vital to keep in mind that symptoms might not be the same for everyone who suffers from migraine.

ProdromeA few hours or days prior to the actual attack of migraine One may begin to notice some warning signs like:

AuraThe stage that occurs after the prodrome is called the aura. According to migraine Australia approximately one third of sufferers of migraine have an aura.

Auras may be associated with the following signs:

  • Visual phenomena, for example seeing different forms, bright spots or flashes of light

  • vision loss

  • pins and needles feel sensations in the legs or arms

  • an numbness or weakness that is felt in the face, or on one other side

  • trouble speaking

Attack A migraine attack may last between four and three days if it is not treated. The frequency of attacks differs from person to.

The symptoms of a migraine attack can include:

  • the pain is typically is located on the one side of your head usually on one side, but sometimes across both sides.

  • Pain that pulses or throbs

  • sensitive to sound, light and, sometimes, smell and the sensation of touch

  • nausea and vomiting

PostdromeThis period is often called an a headache hangover. Following a migraine attack, one may feel exhausted and confused for as long as one day. Many people report feeling happy.

Stigma that is associated with migraine

Migraine is often thought of as an ordinary headache. This can be a mistake, as it obscures the nature of the illness that is a neurologic, genetic disorder that presents a myriad of unique symptoms.

Based on the CDC More than 70% of people suffer from tension headaches at some point in their lives. However it is not the case that all of these headaches might be indicative of migraine.

The National Headache Foundation and other organizations like The National Headache Foundation are playing crucial roles in spreading awareness of migraine.

Treatment and diagnosis

A neurologist is able to identify migraines based on physical examinations, as well as through symptoms or medical records. In cases of severe headaches it is possible to require an MRI or CT scan to pinpoint the primary cause of headaches like brain tumors or damage.

Treatment for migraine typically consists of prescription pain relievers and over-the-counter medications and prescription medications such as Lasmiditan Ubrogepant or opioid-based medications.

Recent migraine research

Read the following article about migraines written by members of the American Society for Biology and Molecular Biology’s Open-Access journals.

Identification of novel mechanisms in the development of migraine:The membranes of nerve cells are home to voltage-gated calcium channels. There is evidence for certain that genetic mutations that encodes for the a1-subunits in the Ca V2.1 (P/Q-type) channel can cause human disorders, such as the type 1 of familial hemiplegic migraine. In research that was published in Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers looked into how mutations of the b-subunits can also alter the calcium channel’s function. The study revealed that mutations can have significant effects.

The relationship between migraines and pain hypersensitivity caused by opioids:Opioid-based treatment is commonly employed to combat migraine. However, long-term usage of opioids can cause an increase in the sensitivity to pain, which is known as hyperalgesia induced by opioids. A study recently released in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics screened for changes in over 1500 neuropeptides in both conditions. Utilizing liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, researchers discovered 16 neuropeptides changed between these two states. Of these, pituitary adenylate an activating cyclase polypeptide (known as PACAP for short) was proven to act as a mediator with chronic migraine, as well as hyperalgesia caused by opioids.

The involvement of cells membrane proteins in hemiplegic headache:Hemiplegic migraine can be described as a very rare and severe kind of migraine headache that can affect both sides of the body, and resembles stroke. Scientists have discovered an error in the gene that encodes an sodium-potassium-pump that plays a role in the development of hemiplegic migraine. In a paper published in JBC researchers identified an alteration that affects the ATP1A2 gene that encodes the sodium-potassium pump. Simply put, the sodium potassium pump assists neuronal cells in brains transmit information through a flow of K + and K + ions. This research provides insight into the features of ATP1A2 mutations, and provides an entirely new approach to the study, diagnosis and treatment of migraine as well as other neurological diseases.